Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

Iosifyan M.A., Arina G.A., Nikolaeva V.V. Tasty and nasty: affective and cognitive attitudinal ambivalence towards health among adolescents

Attitudes are positive and negative evaluations of objects. Cognitive attitudes refer to judgments about objects, while affective attitudes refer to feelings towards objects. Studying cognitive and affective attitudes is important, because they impact health behaviors. However, people’s judgments and feelings about objects are sometimes mixed, positive and negative at the same time. This phenomenon – affective and cognitive attitudinal ambivalence – plays a moderating role in attitude-behavior link. It is already known that adolescents express attitudinal ambivalence towards risky behaviors (alcohol and substance misuse) and that impacts their behaviors. In present study we investigated attitudinal ambivalence towards wider range of health-related objects: risky behaviors, healthy behaviors, family and the self. Because attitudinal ambivalence may change over the course of a lifespan, in the present study it is investigated in developmental perspective. We compared affective and cognitive attitudinal ambivalence towards health-related objects among younger (11–14 y.o.) and older adolescents (15–16 y.o.). The following differences among adolescents were found. Compared to younger adolescents, older adolescents have more contradictory affective attitudes (coexistence of positive and negative feelings towards health-related objects). They hold more ambivalent affective attitudes towards risky behaviors and family in particular. However, no differences were found in cognitive attitudinal ambivalence (coexistence of contradictory judgments about health-related objects) between the two groups of adolescents. Both groups of adolescents have more contradictory feelings towards health-related objects, compared to contradictory judgments about these objects. Practical applications of these findings in preventive programs for healthy lifestyle are discussed.

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Balashova E.Yu. Many spaces of Boris Rauschenbach

The article is devoted to the psychological analysis of the life and work of the outstanding Russian physicist, one of the founders of Russian cosmonautics, academician Boris Viktorovich Rauschenbach (1915-2001). The author of the article tells about the reasons for the scientist's appeal to the study of ways of transferring spatial relations in painting, considers a series of his works devoted to the specificity  of spatial constructions and systems of space image in paintings, frescoes, reliefs of different centuries and cultures. These are monographs "Spatial constructions in painting", "Geometry of painting and visual perception", "Spatial constructions in old Russian painting" and a number of other publications. The article discusses the possibility of interpreting the ideas of B.V.Rauschenbach from the standpoint of cultural-historical approach and aesthetic paradigm in psychological research. The author gives the arguments testifying to the value of B.V.Rauschenbach's ideas for understanding the complex mechanisms of cultural Genesis, for the development of psychology of perceptual processes, age psychology, clinical psychology (in particular, knowledge about the brain organization of spatial perception). Specialists who study the perception of space and other spatial functions (their psychological structure and brain organization) often refer to the works of B.V.Rauschenbach. The article also describes the psychological problems that attracted the attention of the scientist. In his works, B.V.Rauschenbach analyzed in detail the role of setting, suggestion, training in visual perception of space. He attached great importance to errors, distortions in the transmission of spatial relations, rightly believing that they in many cases significantly enhance the expressiveness and informativeness of the image. B.V.Rauschenbach has always been distinguished by the breadth of interests (both scientific and non-scientific), which manifested itself as much as possible in the last decades of his life. This was reflected in the collections of his articles and essays "Passion", "PostScript", "Thoughts at leisure. Essays. Articles. Memoirs». In the text of the article there are citations from the works of B.V.Rauschenbach, allowing readers to evaluate his style of thinking, outstanding literary talent, erudition, observation, sense of humor.

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Tkhostov A.Sh., Rasskazova E.I. Psychodiagnostics of motivation for identification within the body function regulation model: the differentiation of possession and belonging

The concern of scientists to the process of identity formation and its changeability in the modern world makes the issue relevant in terms of the motivational basis of identification. In the present work, based on the approach of psychology of corporeality to identity and the empirical method of the detection of identification motives [Vignoles et al., 2006], we make an attempt to argue and differentiate the experiences of possession and belonging in relation to the objects involved in the person’s identity (in his or her description of that “what I am”). The present work aims at the empirical differentiation of the experiences of possession and belonging during certain identifications as well as the detection of their association with importance and relation to those identifications, with some other peculiarities of identification and psychological wellbeing. One hypothesizes the following: the experiences of possession and belonging, being behind the certain identifications, are two independent predictors of their subjective importance for a person; they are differently interconnected with identification features (in particular, with the land and family) and psychological wellbeing. 227 subjects at the age of 16 till 65 years old filled in the modified test “Who am I?” including the additional evaluation of identification motives, the scales of value and achievement of general identity, the fusion of identity and identification (by the examples of the family and land), the Utrecht management of identity commitments scale, the subjective happiness scale and the self-report questionnaire of the severity of psychopathological symptoms. The analysis of the connection of the functions of certain identifications with their subjective relevance for a person enables us differentiating relatively independent modi of possession and belonging as a motivational basis of identification. At that, pro-social motives connected with the experience of belonging, demand, assistance and support are connected with the importance of identifications tighter than the motives defining the intention for management of oneself and events. It is shown that with the help of screening diagnostics, one may employ a simplified procedure of the assessment of one key (subjectively the most important) answer to the question: “Who am I?”. Though, it is somewhat less accurate. The modus of belonging is associated with psychological wellbeing, positive emotions and social acceptance; the modus of possession is not of less importance for a person. Independently on the intention for belonging, the intention for possession is connected to the relevance and centrality of certain identifications, the completeness, entirety and development of identity. The both modi are not associated with the identification with the land and family by the type of self-categorization but they are connected with identity fusion (in case of belonging – with the land only). The results are discussed in the context of the scope of the approach of psychology of corporeality and opportunity to differentiate variants of personality identification.

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Guseltseva M.S. Aesthetic paradigm and everyday life transformations: methodological aspects

Methodological perspectives of an aesthetic paradigm are discussed in studying the transformations of subjectivity and identity in contemporary culture. The aesthetic paradigm is used in psychological research in broad and narrow sense: in the first case, psychology expands its epistemological horizons on the general scientific level of the methodology of science by drawing on the tools of the history of art and art history; in the second, the focus of attention on the specific scientific level of the methodology of science is directed toward the role of art in socialization and the emergence of person's identity. The aesthetic paradigm is seen as the structuring of the thinking space, on the one hand, which connects the methodology of transdisciplinary analysis with the phenomenology of problems relevant to psychology (such as everyday life, modernity, value transformation, identity building in changing and multiple sociocultural contexts, etc.), and on the other – placing this problematics in special research foreshortenings of art and art history. In the context of psychological research the construct "visibility regimes", which appeared at the junction of the history of everyday life and visual anthropologists, is introduced and justified. It is shown that art creates in culture not only new values and life styles but also new optics (ways of seeing) and visual practices. Taken in its historical-genetic foreshortening the aesthetic paradigm makes it possible to single out different types of aesthetics like successive ones in history and coexisting in modern times. The aesthetic paradigm considered from functional positions solves the tasks of building identity in a situation of breaking traditions and disintegrating the everyday life world. Aesthetics creates a space of sublime life where a person discovers resources for building a new identity. The aesthetic paradigm translates cultural values, integrates sensory experience and overcomes linear thinking. It is characterized by latent constructivism, meaningful in the aesthetics of postmodernism, expressed in building life as a work and as a special contextual sensitivity generating new sociocultural movements.

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Poleva N.S. Aesthetic paradigm as optics of modern psychology research

The theoretical construct "aesthetic paradigm" and the role of art as a methodological optics in psychological research are discussed. Aesthetic paradigm is considered as a system of interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to the study of problems of psychology based on the synthesis of art and science. The representativity of an aesthetic paradigm at different methodological levels is shown. At the general theoretical level the aesthetic paradigm offers psychology a model of organizing knowledge in art as a methodological basis. This is a variant of the network model of the methodology of psychology, which is based on the principles of polyparadigmality and complementarity of knowledge. At the level of the research paradigm art acts as a research model that complements existing research psychological models and constructs of studying the personality, as well as the processes of socialization, the construction of social reality, cultural transmission, the construction of personal and sociocultural identity. A role of an aesthetic paradigm in the study of problems of personal and sociocultural identity is shown. The problem of chronotope harmonization is linked in the aesthetic paradigm with aesthetic experiences, which translates a person into the discourse "human-culture" as opposed to others discourses related to political, economic, social and ethical contexts. The possibilities of art as models for studying the processes of socialization – individualization, identity construction, cultural transmission and the transition of individual senses into meanings are considered. The prognostic value of aesthetic paradigm and art as a modeling activity that constructs reality is shown. It is emphasized that the greatest interest in the quality of the prognostic value of the aesthetic paradigm is the research of the content of feelings, senses and values of contemporaries that are "caught" by art and crystallized in it. Art intuitively reacts and fixes the changes that arise in society before the reflection of such changes in science. At the level of research methods the aesthetic paradigm presupposes the synthesis of the psychological methods of research proper (methods of personality psychology, social and cognitive psychology, the psychology of art) with the methods of related disciplines (art criticism, art history, semiotics, etc.).

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Rzhanova I.E., Alekseeva O.S. Preferences in values of two generations

The results of the family value study were presented. The aim of the study was to compare value hierarchy in two generations: parents and their children.  The sample included 468 person: 290 participants represent older generation (mean age – 49,5, 59% women), 178 participants represent younger generation (mean age – 23,3, 60% women). The list of 16 values (education, interesting work, high income, happy marriage, true friends etc.) was offered to respondents. At first they were asked to choose 7 most important values, and then 3 values from the 7. For each value the percent of participants, who chose it as most important, were calculated; and the hierarchy of values for two generation were constructed. It was found out that most and less important values were equal for parents and children. Most important values were "happy marriage" and "true friends", less important values were "power", "celebrity" and "popularity". However the frequency of value choice was different in older and younger generations. For example, value "happy marriage" was more important for parents then for children, percent of children who choose this value was significant lower than percent of parents. The same results were found out for "power", "celebrity" and "popularity" – these values were more important for younger participants than for older participants.

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Samokhvalova A.G., Ekimchik O.A. Communicative difficulties of adolescents: study of psychometric qualities of the Questionnaire "Difficulties in communicating with peers and adults"

Methodological approaches to the creation of a new tool for measuring communicative difficulties in adolescence are presented - the Questionnaire   "Difficulties in communicating with peers and adults" (author A.G. Samokhvalova). The results of a study of the psychometric qualities of this questionnaire, designed to study the actual communicative difficulties of adolescents, are presented on a sample of 336 people aged 15-17 years (9th grade students - 86 boys and 79 girls, 11th grade students - 86 boys and 85 girls). The questionnaire measures what communicative difficulties arise in adolescents in the process of communicating with peers and adults. The technique allows to identify the difficulties of four groups - the basic ones, connected with the personal qualities of a teenager; meaningful, connected with a lack of communicative knowledge, inability to plan and reorganize communication programs; instrumental, connected with the teenager's inability to effectively implement the planned communication plans in practice, to influence the partner; reflexive, connected with inability to analyze communication, inability to recognize and correct own mistakes. All the final data meet the criteria of sexual and age differences, are correlated with the expert evaluation of the nature of communication of adolescents by specialists. The authors obtained empirical norms separately for four subscales. The results show good constructive validity of the method, including its theoretically justified factor structure in relation to different age categories, as well as statistically verified convergent and discriminant validity. It is concluded that the technique of "Difficulties in communicating with peers and adults" is reliable for measuring the communicative difficulties of adolescents.

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Shamionov R.M., Beskova T.V. Methods of diagnostics of subjective well-being of the person

The use of various tools to assess the structural components of subjective well-being makes it difficult for system analysis. Therefore, the article proposes a new tool that claims to cover various aspects of subjective well-being. It was assumed that subjective well-being, in addition to the components of cognitive and emotional well-being identified and measured by the majority of authors, includes a number of other components. The initial position in the design of the technique was the idea that subjective well-being is a synthetic socio-psychological phenomena, which includes a number of components that reflect the well-being of various aspects of human existence, among which the main are he/she, his/her experiences, activities and its meanings, contemplation, inclusion in the community and society (focus on yourself or on the community). The aim of the study was to develop, validate and standardize the original methods of diagnosis of subjective well-being of the individual. The sample of the study was 252 people (57,5% of women, 42,5% of men) aged 18 to 50 years. In the process of design of the technique, the reliability check (retest, by internal consistency, parts of the questionnaire), obvious, meaningful and convergent validity, was carried out, that this technique is a reliable and valid tool that allows to diagnose qualitatively and in a short time the overall level of subjective well-being and its components, without resorting to other means. The developed method includes five scales (emotional well-being, existential-activity well-being, ego-well-being, hedonistic well-being, social-normative well-being), reflecting its structure, as well as the integrative scale of subjective well-being. The five-factor structure of subjective well-being has not only empirical, but also theoretical basis. The scales selected on the basis of factor analysis correspond to the ideas about the structure of subjective well-being reflected in the works of Russian psychologists.

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Mishina G.A., Tarasova A.D. Past, present and future of children with learning disabilities in the parental representation

The article is devoted to the study of the time perspective of the image of the child in the parental representation. The author presents the results of a comparative analysis of the data of three groups of parents, who have children with learning disabilities, enrolled in a special school, enrolled in a primary school, realizing inclusive approach, and normative development children, enrolled in a general educational primary school. Using the questionnaire and the unfinished sentences, designed taking into account the time perspective and positive/negative inducers, we obtained the data, allowed us to compare the parental representation about the past, present and future of schoolchildren with learning disabilities, who enrolled in different educational systems - special education and inclusive education. The data allowed to say that the time perspective (from a distant future to an open present) narrowed with an increasing the severity of the disability. The most desirable feature of the child's personality (as for present and future as well) for parents is his independence, nevertheless adults are not ready to provide opportunities for its formation, strictly controlling the behavior of the child and symbiotic living his life. Taking into account the realization of inclusive approach, the presented material allows to design the content of psychological assistance aimed at the individual personal development of the child, harmonization of parent-child interaction, as well as to build a constructive relationship between teachers and parents.

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Tatarko K.I. Attitudes towards old age and its preferred image in early adulthood

The signs of biological aging take a pronounced form in late adulthood (at the age of 60–65 age – to death). Therefore psychological and social old age is associated with this stage in society. In general age-related changes of a person differ by their individual and unique scenario. However the prevailing negative image of the society of late adulthood forms in the individual fear of entry into this age range. It is necessary to take preventive measures to minimize the existing unfavorable image of old age and to revise the attitude to this stage of ontogenesis. Just for this purpose a study was conducted on the Belarusian sample to identify attitudes regarding old age and its preferred image. The study involved 125 people aged 18–37 years. The study helped to reveal attitudes regarding old age. It also defines the opportunities and social role that older people should realize. The article presents the results of the preferred image of the future of old age according to young people. The factors contributing to the formation of a prosperous and unfavorable scenario of personality development in old age are presented in this article. These tasks make up the scientific novelty of the research. Respondents were asked to continue the 8 unfinished proposals that had been pre-evaluated by experts. The results were processed using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. It is concluded that the favorable passage of the individual period of late adulthood can contribute to the broadcast media the following image of old age: it is the natural stage of human development, accompanied by a deterioration of the functional system of the body, which can lead to the inaccessibility of some areas of social life. However when working on yourself in early and middle adulthood it is possible to make the aging process not so destructive.

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Dubovskaya E.M., Kiseleva M.A. Social transitivity as a factor in the formation of a value structure in adolescence

The problem of youth values, their formation and content is one of the most traditional and remaining topical issue. Values ​​seem to be an obvious manifestation of the intersection of the regulation of the actions of a person and his environment. Those. numerous and diverse representations reflecting the social representations of different groups are appropriated by the individual and determine his concrete actions. Values ​​are formed under the influence of the social experience acquired by a person and manifest themselves in the goals, ideas, convictions of the personality and set the vector of personality development and the content side of its activity, defining the general approach of the person to himself, other people and the world as a whole, giving meaning and direction to his behavior and activities. The purpose of our study is to study the features of the contents of the value structure of students in Moscow and Petrozavodsk. These regions we saw as fundamentally different manifestations of social transitivity. The method used by S. Schwartz for the study of values, the scale of perception of social transitivity and a free essay on the theme "Modern world: diversity and similarity of people" were used in the work; The obtained results showed both similar in content values ​​of students in Moscow and Petrozavodsk, and specific for these regions representations. The most significant for Muscovites were such value blocks as independence, achievements, hedonism, security, and also kindness. For students from Petrozavodsk, the following values ​​are significant: independence, kindness, security, conformity, incentives, achievements, traditions, hedonism, universalism, power. On the whole, having confirmed the assumption about the role of transitivity in the process of formation of the value structure in adolescence, the data obtained allowed us to formulate the direction of further research in this field.

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Belinskaya E.P., Gavrichenko O.V. The self-presentation in virtual space: phenomenology and regularities

New tendencies and new ways of communication and the self-presentation in transitive and virtual space are considered. The value of new technological space in formation of a picture of the world of modern people, specifics of the self-presentation and communication is revealed. New tendencies of influence of the Internet on communication and specifics of the self-presentation in real and virtual space are analyzed. It is shown that there is an expressed communication between virtual and transitive spaces that allows predicting styles of identity when strengthening transitivity. Results of a research of the self-presentation are presented to Instagram networks. It is proved that the personal page in network is display of a picture of the world of this user. At the same time on social networks not only the need for information and contacts, but also for self-realization, increase in the social status is implemented. Thus, social networks stimulate formation of subjective space which begins to dominate in an overall picture of the world, and specifics of the visual self-presentation can serve in social networks as the indicator of the objective social status of the user. Differences in styles of the self-presentation at users of different age and social groups are shown. The main difference in character of the visual self-presentations of high-status users consists not in degree of printing activity, and in a bigger variety the content of the self-presentations and personal pages. At the same time the aspiration to personification of the self-presentations, unlike the mixed group of users for whom increase in the status it is connected, just, with bigger personification is not characteristic of group of users which popular domestic performers enter. The lack of differences on a sex, age, individual characteristics in the content of the self-presentations of all users, allows saying that in the virtual self-presentations the leader is the status.

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