Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

Enikolopov S.N, Medvedeva T.I., Vorontsova O.Y., Chudova N.V., Kuznetsova J.M., Penkina M.Y., Minin A.N., Stankevich M.A., Smirnov I.V., Lubavskaya A.A. Linguistic characteristics of texts of mentally ill and healthy peopleEnikolopov S.N, Medvedeva T.I.,

The article provides an overview of existing methods of text intelligent analysis  used as research tools in clinical psychology and psychiatry. A linguistic analysis of the texts written by healthy people (142 people) and patients with endogenous mental diseases (22 people) was conducted at the first stage of the development of a complex method of linguistic text analysis taking into account lexical as well as other aspects of written speech. To analyze the semantic-syntactic structure of utterances, the relational-situational analysis method was used, which is based on Zolotova’s sintaxemes analysis and on the concept of heterogeneous semantic networks by G.S. Osipov. Also, a method of the lexical frequency analysis was employed using the PLATIn analyzer, developed on the basis of the Exactus Expert processor. The used methods allowed identifying differences in the texts with respect to a number of parameters: characteristics of the syntactic structure of sentences and semantic roles of predicates, psycholinguistic and lexical emotional markers, characteristics of the topics discussed in the text. It is shown that the parameters related to the semantic roles of predicates - agents, causative agents, facilitators, predicates, instrumentalities, generatives - are significantly reduced in the patients. Differences in the psycholinguistic indicators, such as the first person plural pronouns, the first person singular pronouns, the Treiger index, the ratio of the number of infinitives to the total number of verbs are connected with psychopathological deficit symptoms and self-focused attention in the patients. The characteristics of the discussed topics showed the relevance of the illness and health care and less frequent mentioning other social problems in the texts of the patients.

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Korehova M.V., Soloviev A.G., Kirov M.Yu., Novikova I.A. Features of professional burnout syndrome at the doctors anaesthetist

Anesthesiologists can be attributed to the specialists of extreme activity profile, as their work involves many stress factors. Occupational stress often causes a decrease in the adaptive abilities of anesthesiologists, resuscitators, the emergence of professional burnout, as well as health problems. Used techniques: scale of organizational stress of Mak-Lin, the questionnaire «Attitude to work and professional burn-out» of V.A.Vinokur, the questionnaire of behavior and work-related experiences, the multi-level personal questionnaire "Adaptability" of A.G.Maklakov, S.V.Chermyanin, test of C.D.Spielberger–Yu.A.Hanin, methods of assessment of psychological atmosphere. To identify features of burnout syndrome in anesthesiologists, we conducted a survey study in 24 doctors working in Komi Republic and 26 – in Arkhangelsk region. It was found that doctors working in  Komi Republic have more often risk factors and signs of professional burnout (63,6%), characterized by emotional exhaustion and stress in work, deterioration of health and social adaptation, in comparison with doctors of the Arkhangelsk region. Anesthesiologists of both groups are characterized by behavior type A showing a high subjective level of professional activity, high readiness for energy costs, low resistance to frustration and stress. More than half of the anesthesiologists working in Komi Republic use maladaptive coping strategies in dealing with intractable situations arising during work. These results led to preparation of recommendations for prevention and correction of burnout in anesthesiologists. Prevention of professional burnout is a set of preventive measures aimed at reducing the probability of development of prerequisites. It should include professional-organizational, social and individual-psychological directions of work.

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Ulybina E.V., Filippova A.E. The contribution of gender identity and just world belief to the attribution of guilt in inter-gender vertical conflict in an organization

The present article is dedicated to the study of the contribution of sex of respondents, sex of characters, just world belief (JWB) and indicators of gender identity to the attribution of guilt to participants of inter-gender vertical conflict in an organization. Study participants included 140 students from different Moscow universities, 70 of them female. The average age of respondents was 20. Participants were invited to respond a vignette. The vignette described the situation of unfair punishment of a worker by a boss and was presented in two variants: in the first the boss was female and the worker was male, in the second vice versa. Respondents were asked to assess the guilt of both the worker and the boss. The analysis of the results showed that differences in attribution of guilt to characters that depend on sex of participants take place solely towards female boss who is attributed more guilt by male respondents and less guilt by female respondents. Differences in attribution of guilt to boss towards male boss are insignificant. However, gender favoritism is not related to the level of identification with one’s gender group in both cases. Indicators of gender identity are inversely related to the attribution of guilt to members of one’s gender group solely in the situation of the traditional role distribution: male boss and female subordinate. Male respondents have gender identity indicators inversely related to the attribution of guilt to male boss only in situation of female respondents having gender identity indicators inversely related to the attribution of guilt to female subordinate. JWB indicators do not have significant relations to the attribution of guilt to conflict’s participants by neither male nor female respondents.

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Avanesyan M.O. Alternative autobiographical story as a component of the possible self

It is considered that the integrity of Ego, the acceptance of one's life versus despair and regrets about the missed opportunities is an outcome of passing through psychosocial crisis of the last stage of development (by E.Erikson); also the life choice is considered as a fork in the road, after which a person leaves the unselected option behind in his past. However, the content of life stories shows that an unhappened story can evolve in the form of an alternative life story. The analysis of autobiographical interviews with 58 people (25 men, 33 women, average age 35,3 years (SD = 11,2, min – 21, max – 72)) showed that when answering a question about the events that changed their lives, the respondents told about missed opportunities (20,6%), less often about success (5,1%). The notion of an "alternative life story" is developed, which is defined as a part of an actual autobiographical discourse containing unrealized or rejected opportunities. The obstacle of the research was to define the role of alternative stories and the way in which possible selves are included in the life story of a person. The alternative life stories are suggested to consider as possible self. An empirical classification of the types of alternative stories is described and illustrated by examples from the interviews. An alternative life story is often associated with a turning point (crucial event) in life that disrupts the continuity and coherence of the life line and the self-concept. However, it enhances the thematic coherence of autobiographical history, since it carries the basic values and life principles of a person: history remains unhappened, but still relevant in the person's life space. Interpretation of the obtained results is carried out with reliance on the theory of the field of K.Levin, the concept of possible self and the temporal self-appraisal (TSA) theory (theory of self-appraisal based on comparison in time (E.J.Strahan, A.E.Wilson).

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Kroz M.V., Ratinova N.A. Value orientations of corrupt criminals

The paper presents partial results of a psychological constitution research in state officials convicted for corruption-related crimes (mostly under the article 290 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, 'Bribe-taking'). The control group is comprised of law-abiding state officials. The study is based on the value-norm theory of criminal identity, developed by A.R. Ratinov, and so prioritizes the analysis of bribetakers' sphere of values and its intrinsic hierarchy, observed at both reportable and non-reportable levels. The study investigates and compares value orientation systems of bribetakers and law-abiding citizens to identify the most and least significant values for both groups. The results of the research are a long way from popular stereotypical impressions of bribetakers as mercantile, avaricious people that give preference to material values. The study establishes that core values among bribetakers are such things as liberty, family, love, children, health, education, gain of knowledge and widening of mental horizons, while law-abiding citizens display similar preferences. The least relevant values among bribetakers are material security, entertainment, public recognition, aesthetic experience, high aspirations, law and authority. Lower priority of law and authority is also notable in law-abiding citizens, which is indicative of legal nihilism and estrangement from authority that are rampant in modern society. The results of the study are important for the implementation of effective counter-corruption measures in state service.

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Popova R.R., Bayanova L.F., Veraksa A.N., Kochetkova E.A. Psychological features of recognition of emotions in preschoolers with different levels of cultural congruence

The results of the empirical research of emotion recognition in preschoolers having different levels of compliance of their behavior with invariant cultural rules, typical of the given age, are presented. The study was based on the model of the hierarchical organization of emotional sphere [Pons et al., 2004; Harris, 2008] which is supposed to distinguish between the external, mental and reflexive levels of its consecutive differentiation. Test battery consisted of the methods that allowed to determine different aspects of emotion recognition, including subtests of NEPSY–II. The study was conducted in the kindergartens of Tatarstan in 2017-2018. The participants were preschoolers aged 5-6 (N = 225) and their mothers (N = 225). In the process of research, it was possible to distinguish groups of children having different levels of cultural congruence and to demonstrate the characteristics of emotion recognition in children of these groups. It has been found that a higher accuracy of recognizing emotions from faces (out of the situational context) was more characteristic of children with the “high” and “low” levels of cultural congruence. The same groups of children were characterized by a higher level of anxiety in the social situations. At the same time, the accuracy of recognizing certain emotions by facial expression, as well as the recognition and comprehension of the emotions of others in the context of the situation, did not show a significant connection with the level of cultural congruence. Moreover, the differences in comprehending the social context of situations and the causes of emotions experienced could be observed as trends and depended on the content of the situations offered to children and the way in which specific situations combined the semantic and emotional aspects.

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Tkachenko D.P. Changes of emotional intelligence in the process of socialization of adolescents in the stable and crisis periods of the development of society

The article deals with the socialization of adolescents in the period of transitivity of society. The contradictions arising in the course of socialization at different levels of the social system and in a variety of value orientations are analyzed. It is proposed to study the process of socialization of modern adolescents in terms of the principle of subjectivity and according to ideas about the main characteristics of the subject in modern psychology. The value and nature of activity of the subject in the process of integration of different systems are considered. The question of regulation of behavior as a significant aspect of maintenance and development of subjectivity is raised. The problem of considering emotional intelligence as a significant regulatory component in the formation of subjectivity in adolescence is touched upon. The author suggests a change in the nature of emotional intelligence in the context of socialization of adolescents in a crisis society. The variants of possible manifestations of emotional intelligence as a component of regulation in the situation of intensive socialization in the crisis period of the existence of society are offered. The data of research of emotional intelligence and its interrelations with other aspects of socialization at Crisis and Stable cohorts of teenagers are presented. The interrelation of indicators of emotional intelligence with features of social adaptation at these two groups of teenagers is analyzed. Conclusions are made about the importance of different components of emotional intelligence in the process of socialization, on the example of assessing the success of social adaptation. A comparative analysis of the regulatory function of emotional intelligence among adolescents of stable and crisis cohorts is carried out. Based on the comparison, the conclusion is made about the nature of changes in emotional intelligence, also about its importance for the process of socialization of adolescents in modern transitive society.

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Ivanova I.V. Socialization of youth in the context of information preferences

The article presents the results of the study of information socialization based on the study of information preferences as the primary attention and selective attitude to certain sources, content and means of information, and their application. Data of empirical research of cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of information socialization of students of pedagogical College and students of pedagogical University of Blagoveshchensk of the Amur region are presented. Preferences in the sources of information of interest (Internet) and educational information (books, teachers, Internet), preferences in content (people and their relationships, science and education, cinema, music), orientation (on communication, knowledge/education and self-education, entertainment), form of presentation (visual images and videos), means and methods of information transmission (oral speech in direct personal contact and instant audio and text messages in distant communication). The greatest trust to information from books, assessment of information on the Internet more often as reliable, satisfaction in the Internet environment of existential, social and prestigious needs is stated. Students and students prefer to use mobile devices to search, receive and transmit information, actively use Internet resources (search engines, social networks, film sites, music and educational sites) for communication, knowledge, news search, social activity and entertainment, creates personal pages, spends more than 5 hours a day on the Internet, prefers to perceive information in visual form, transmit it in the form of audio messages. There are more similarities than differences between pedagogical University students and pedagogical College students in the components of information socialization and information preferences.

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Danilenko O.I. Anticipation competency in the system of personal predictors of academic achievements in university students

The theoretical substantiation of inclusion in the number of psychological characteristics considered as predictors of academic achievements, indicators of students’ anticipation competency, is given. The model of students’ anticipation competency as a resource of early coping with the learning process difficulties is described. The data of the empirical research are given, the purpose of which is to reveal the contribution of components of students’ anticipation competency as constituents of the personal resources system to the academic achievements in university students. The sample includes 276 senior students. To determine the indicators of the students’ anticipation competency, the AS-VUZ-2 questionnaire was used; to determine the personal variables, the scores of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (R.Schwarzer, M.Jerusalem, adaptation by V.В.Romek), the Life Orientation Test (С.S.Carver, M.F.Scheier, adaptation by T.O.Gordeeva, O.A.Sychev, E.N.Osin), the Purpose-in-Life Orientations Test (J.S.Crambaugh, L.T.Maholick, adaptation by D.A.Leontiev), the Hardiness Survey Test (S.Maddi, adaptation by D.A.Leontiev. E.I.Rasskazova) and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory Scales (Ch.D.Spielberger, adaptation by Yu.I.Khanin) were used. The Academic Performance Index is the average grade point (GPA). The regression analysis was used to process the data. The research results were presented. The significant positive predictors of academic achievements in university students include anticipation competency components are: foresight that is a characteristic reflecting the subject’s inclination to exercise effective concern for the future, creating resources for a successful activity in a more or less distant future; self-regulation in educational activity that is a characteristic reflecting the ability to adequately assess the requirements of the educational process and own capabilities. Moreover, the number of significant positive predictors of academic achievement includes indicators reflecting the subject’s confidence to control the circumstances of own life, and personal anxiety. The number of significant negative predictors includes an indicator reflecting satisfaction with self-realization and an indicator reflecting the willingness to take risks to acquire new experience.

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Polskaya N.A., Mukhametzyanova M.N. Emotion regulation peculiarities in relation to stress and burnout

Modern organizations demand that employees are able to regulate their emotions, engage emotionally in professional activities, and express, or even induce, certain emotions while fulfilling job-related tasks. More often than not high emotional load in professional activity triggers burn-out symptoms,  psychopathological and psychosomatic disorders. This is why both HR-managers and researchers focus on different aspects of emotion regulation. In the present study, we investigated the relations between emotional intelligence, emotion dysregulation, cognitive strategies of emotion regulation, stress symptoms, and burnout in the sample of retail workers (N=89). We showed that increased or chronic stress experiences and burnout symptoms increase emotion dysregulation including destructive coping use and a general decrease in emotional intelligence. Personal factors of emotion dysregulation are the most strongly linked to the scales of chronic stress and emotional exhaustion (the latter from the Maslach Burnout Inventory). We found out that two forms of emotion dysregulation were related to stress and burnout – avoiding emotional experience and mentalizing difficulties. This result is not only theoretically sound, but it also fits well into the clinical phenomenology of stress-induced mental disorders: emotional vulnerability in the structure of personal self-regulation is a grave risk factor for psychopathology in a stressful environment. The connection between such an adaptive emotion regulation strategy as acceptance and measures of chronic stress and burnout can be viewed as a prognostically adverse development. It implies on the one hand that a person recognizes his/her deficits, but on the other hand s/he is fixated on the painful experiences of his/her psychoemotional disadvantage.

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Orestova V.R., Tkachenko D.P. The reflection of the needs of today's young people through the film preferences and perceptions of superheroes in the conditions of transitivity

The article discusses the popular culture, on the example of cinema, as the space in which the socialization of modern youth occurs in conditions of social transitivity. Cinema is considered not only as one of the main sources of informational influence, influencing the formation of ideas about reality, attitudes, values, behavior patterns. It is stated that watching a movie or a series can be a specific coping strategy, allowing the viewer to identify themselves with the characters and metaphorically live on-screen history, overcome their own difficulties and build their own identity. It is described the current situation, characterized by the increasing popularity of TV shows and the time spent by teenagers and young men watching them, as well as the constant increase in the popularity of superheroes films that have become one of the most significant and fastest growing areas of popular culture. The reasons for the constant attractiveness of these mass culture products are analyzed. The article presents the results of two pilot studies. In the first study, devoted to the study of the psychological characteristics of the youth of the TV series, interrelations were found between the motives of choice and the perception of the series and the features of identity, as well as personal dispositions of the teenage and youthful series. The second study is devoted to identifying ideas about superheroes and the preferred characteristics of the characters, the most popular among modern viewers. Ideas about superheroes and preferred characteristics of Batman, Iron Man and Spiderman characters, most popular among modern viewers, were revealed. It is shown that despite the fact that modern superheroes have super-technological means of strengthening their own power, the audience is guided by their human and "non-superhuman" characteristics that make them related to the heroes of the past. Sex and age differences influenced the perception of the preferred characteristics of the chosen superheroes were identified, which allowed to highlight the "heroic" qualities of priority for men and women, teenagers and young men.

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Martsinkovskaya T.D. The new aesthetics of transitivity

The content and patterns of rigid (crisis) and fluid (soft) transitivity are analyzed. The psychological difficulties caused by rigid and fluid transitivity are shown, and it is proved that it is the duration and irreversibility of small but constantly running changes that cause the greatest anxiety and negative emotional experiences of people. It is revealed the specificity of the modern social situation in which the fluid and rigid transitivity are closely connected. This leads to the actualization of the desire for peace and stability and raises the question of how to overcome the negative psychological consequences of transitivity. The necessity to adopt a situation of constant change leads to the appearance of a new aesthetics, aesthetics of transitivity. In this aesthetics, two opposing trends come to the fore: aesthetic of everyday life and aesthetic of abrupt transformations. This leads to a contradiction in aesthetic standards associated with the presence in the works of art in unison classical images and modern forms. These conflicting standards are linked in a single piece of art. At the same time, broken forms and sharp tonal and rhythmic changes are accompanied by sounding text. Appearance to architecture, seemingly, compensates the loss of a sense of time, and the desire to modernize the plot is used to prove the constancy of many modern problems. It is proved that for studying the psychological regulations and phenomenology of mixed, rigid and fluid transitivity, it is necessary to use a complex methodological construct that goes beyond a single methodological system, that is, represents a kind of methodological collage. Emotional experiences of the scrapping of times and spaces determine the ability to find one’s own, personal, harmonious combination of space and time. These experiences form new ideas about life and crystallize into new aesthetics, new values and images of stability. Thus, we can say that the aesthetics of disharmony, transforming in the emotional experience, leads to new images. Their aesthetic makes broken images new beauty. This leads to the fact that these images become new aesthetics. They help get used to the transformations. And the external and internal forms of the chronotope can become the basis for working out a methodological model for studying and interpreting data obtained in situation of rigid and fluid transitivity.

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